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What is Localhost?

Localhost is a name of local computer in any computer network. In another words, if you try to type localhost into your browser, it tries to connect to your own computer, typically on port 80, which is reserved for  providing web pages. Note that every time you time in a web page, browser itself put a hidden port, which is, as we written before, 80. It is the same, as write www.google.com:80, where you specify a concrete port to be connected. Localhost is exact, and always same, DNS name for your computer, and is typically used by servers to identify and targe itself. For example, when computer tries to determine its own IP address (public address), it can try to ,,ping” itself by calling ,,ping localhost” – every computer know that. Without localhost, no computer would be easily informed about many important information about itself.

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Price / mo

Hard drive

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lostinspacehosting.comMercuryPLN17 300GB10GBUnited States United States99.275%
Description: ruby server monitoring, gfi server monitor, wow mop private server
hostbreak.comPersonalPLN10 Unlimited2GBPakistan Pakistan99.214%
Description: cloud based server backup solutions, server monitoring tool, cloud hosted servers
Alfahosting GmbHReseller Plan BPLN84 Unlimited350GBGermany Germany99.953%
Description: online server monitor, dedicated server with cpanel, create a cloud server
icdsoft.comEconomyPLN21 1GB20GBUnited States United States99.141%
Description: dedicated server hosting australia, cloud based server backup, server backups
perronhosting.comUnlimitedPLN24 UnlimitedUnlimitedCANADA99.285%
Description: server monitor android, raid server recovery, sql server recovery
hostingowner.comAdvancedPLN77 10GB100Gb 99.32%
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canhost.caLevel 1PLN34 DynamicDynamicCANADA99.955%
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tullnet.comStarterPLN48 10GB100MB 99.723%
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zzhosting.comBudgetPLN13 5GB100GBUnited States United States99.56%
Description: systems management server, windows cloud servers, cloud backup servers
Webpresence GmbHStaticStartPLN13 Unlimited100 MBGermany Germany99.711%
Description: best server backup solution, server cloud canada, cost of cloud server
cutabovehost.comTurbo 2PLN34 100GB10GBUnited States United States99.979%
Description: xen server backup, monitor windows server performance, server backup solution
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tsohost.comLitePLN5GB500MB 99.161%
Description: cloud server host, cloud server services, server disaster recovery
50megs.comStarterPLN20 10GB1GBUnited States United States99.917%
Description: how to backup server, performance monitor windows server 2008 r2, monitoring server performance
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Description: online server backup solutions, monitoring server software, cloud vs server
asphostportal.comHost OnePLN20 5GB60GBUnited States United States99.328%
Description: server image backup, sql server backup table, cloud virtual servers
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Description: cloud server solutions, window server backup, cloud backup for servers
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m2host.com/ExpertPLN33 UnlimitedUnlimited99.331%
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asmallorange.comStart UpPLN69 600GB40GBIndia India99.625%
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wantingawebsite.comSilverPLN19 4GB400MB 99.964%
Description: cloud servers reviews, server 2008 image backup, sql server with check option
FSIT AGWeb Piccolo 10GBPLN29 Unlimited10GBGermany Germany99.749%
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LCube - Professional HostingSVNOnly StarterPLN15 Unlimited1,46GBGermany Germany99.127%
Description: cloud server costs, windows server 2003 group policy editor, best server backup
nuvodev.comPersonalPLN10GB1GBIndia India99.978%
Description: cloud backup server, datacenter server architecture, online backup servers
Christo.Net InternetserviceWebhost Classic I für nur 12.90 €/MonatPLN54 Unlimited5GBGermany Germany99.948%
Description: server backup tools, server cloud, server performance monitoring
bizhostnet.comSmall BusinessPLN96 UnlimitedUnlimited99.604%
Description: web server monitoring, build a cloud server, windows server 2008 system restore

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Flea market – commodities, prices, bargaining

From research of the behaviour of people on the flea market, it follows that the things we commonly think of commodities, are for some reason different in the flea market at least for most of the shoppers. This is not just about second-hand things, such as worn T-shirts or second-hand clothing in general. For these things, we could point to their status, which indicates previous use, which in the classical sense of commodity life means that their track is over and should therefore no longer be sold. How, however, can we explain that the goods that we can find even in the shops, unused and packed in the original packaging, seem inexpensive on the market? The answer may be that these goods do not fulfil our idea of ​​commodity, because the commodity is not just a thing, but a thing in a certain situation and as such is determined by its surroundings. If we find it inappropriate for the image that we have about the presentation of specific goods, then this inexperience is transferred to the goods themselves. It's just as though, for example, in the florist they have decided to expand their range or offer plush toys in the locksmith. The image of some types of commodities on the market can thus paradoxically distort the market itself. Paradoxically, because while some things nobody expected, the status of commodities lends itself to others, but it does not directly take the status of commodities, but it significantly weakens it.

Another factor that is involved in creating value on the market of things offered is the buyer and the seller himself. We will now focus only on the aspect associated with the value of things. Scientists point out the important role played by knowledge in the market environment. Knowledge or even local knowledge can even become a commodity. Generally speaking, this is not a one-sided advantage that only one side could benefit from, but rather a system of mutually responsive individuals whose functioning is made possible by the knowledge of both parties. In the individual sphere, however, knowledge plays a crucial role, particularly in shops where the price and, therefore, the value of things are argued between the buyer and the seller. In normal shopping when the product's price is given, the buyer has no chance to influence it and can only decide whether the value attributed to the item corresponds to the desired price. In flea markets it is a bit different. As I have shown above, the price here is never certain. More than other purchases, the shoppers are referred to themselves, to their own aesthetic and value-based scales, according to which to decide and judge the price offered. If it does not seem to match the value of the thing, it can try to change it by negotiation. However, it is necessary to realize that the goal of a bargaining may not be only the attainment of the price at which the purchase will appear to be beneficial, but it may also be a game in which first and foremost the bargaining itself and, secondly, a specific thing. Finally, there is also a bargain when the buyer is able to place the thing among objectively recognized valuable commodities and can use that knowledge for his own benefit. In spite of all the opportunities the bargaining market invites - the type of goods offered, the style of their presentation, the surrounding space, the absence of price lists, etc. - but many people do not use this option. It sees the agreement as a kind of ability that one controls or learns over time, and which seems very useful in the marketplace. However, on the basis of bad experience or fear of failure, they do not dare to bargain themselves.


Gaming "sports" streams or the sport you're sitting at

In recent years, the number of video games in the market has steeply risen, and it goes hand in hand with the rise of in game streams. To this date, 470 million of this content is spoken of, and this number is growing steadily. It is no wonder, therefore, that everyone wants to cut a piece of the imaginary cake and give a little life.

The phenomenon was probably triggered by the Twitch.tv platform - the site was so popular as a small start-up that Amazon bought it in 2014 for an incredible $ 1 billion and is still the leader in the field of game streams. Their audience consists mainly of males between the ages of 13 and 34 and spends there on average more than an hour a day. Ads and products tailored to this target group are just flushing and Twitch has become a breeding ground for future game flow development.

Why watch when I can play?

Every year there is a plenty of new games, and shopping is a complex process. One simply wants to choose the game that will make him entertained, without having the remorse of conscience. The demo version era is long over, and streaming with Youtube videos has become the golden middleway to promoting new titles. You get the commented content here and now, and you are straightforward to say if the game experience matches the price.

Popular gaming streams revolve around charismatic personalities who are capable of seizing viewers no matter what games they play. Rather than come to see how the game is played, they have come to watch their hero, who is playing the game. Their favourite players do not just create content, they become strong opinion leaders and are effective channels through which you want to know about your new game.

The sport you sit for

Electronic sports, or e-sports, are not easy to explain to an uninitiated, one well-known dictionary defines it as follows: "A multiplayer video game played competitively for spectators, typically by professional gamers." The debate is about whether or not it really is a sport. If you have not said much about the definition, nothing goes wrong. All you have to do is: If people are willing to watch the world football championship on their TV screens, they can also watch the video game championship on their computer screens. And they can watch where else than on streaming platforms. There is one of the most popular and lucrative categories, and the brand is just a pen for them.

E-sports championships are spectacular events that play millions of dollars

In response to the rapid development and popularity of the new industry, the Asian Olympic Committee (OCA) decided on 18 April this year to include a competitive computer game in a traditional sporting event called Asian Games. In some sporting events, they only appear demonstratively, but in Hangzhou, China, players will be able to officially win their first ever medal. And although e-sport is still not an Olympic sport as such, it is one big milestone in the world of computer games.

Everybody wants to do it

The popularity of e-sports and the game flow itself is just Twitch.tv. His direct competitor did not wait long and Youtube came up with a platform called YouTube Gaming (note: YouTube or Google also attempted to acquire Twitch.tv). He has long dominated the field of on-demand video, and he wanted to consolidate his position on the live stream of services. However, its content, unlike its rival, focused less on e-sports and more on upcoming or newly released games, which may be due to its lower audience. Even so, it has become a meaningful alternative for many audiences.

In August 2016, Facebook announced its collaboration with Blizzard Entertainment (a developer studio and game publisher responsible for, for example, World of Warcraft, or "WoW"), which has been linked to Facebook Live, through which you can literally play live gaming with two clicks - but only from Blizzard.

Today it is trying to optimize both mobile and desktop software programs with Facebook Live in a way that makes streaming easier and more accessible to everyone. The largest social network simply knows, that it has a base of 1.6 billion active users, thereby getting an active number of live broadcasters and their viewers will not be such a problem. However, professional or well-known players do not use it too much and a few ordinary people do not popularize it so much - so the ambitious plan to stick with the gaming streams remains in the long run.

Last but not least, it decided to enter is Twitter and Twitter in March 2017. Twitter has entered into partnerships with major game tournament organizers such as ESL or Dreamhack and talks about more than 1500 hours of e-sport content. It makes sense that a large number of players already have an account on it, they use it as a means of communicating at different events, and that's why they should have everything in one place.

Like at home

There is no clear reason why players are willing to spend hours watching online streams, even though they can play the same game themselves. They can interact and they interact within the media, streaming services are more similar to social networks than any gaming company. So whether the gamblers cannot decide which game to buy, watch their celebrity or cheer up their favourite e-sport team, for all of them the streaming platforms have become home and the environment where they can spend their free time.


Keyword analysis "www g"

Or: when looking for "g" - I recently found this interesting phrase in the report for the most searched words in US. Working with my favourite analytics tool Semrush, I came across the phrase "www g" - with its search for 246,000 entries a year in the US, it is one of the most searched phrase. It can be assumed that it is searched mainly by users, who wanted to enter www.google.com or its local variant. Either they clicked faster or they know that they will still appear with Google search and offer their address in one of the first places.

From an IT employee's point of view, it's interesting that users know that the URL addresses are written with www, but they do not enter a dot. This suggests they obviously really want to look for www.google.com and not enter it directly. This is indicative of incomplete IT literacy, because they would have much more secure search results by simply typing "google" into the search line.

In the end, the funny fact may be, that in most cases, these people have default search settings set on Google in their browser, so they do not even have to search for the site itself and just enter what they really want to look for, such as "online monitoring" for their blog.


Do not make an unnecessary mistake when choosing a laptop. It is not complicated

A fairly wide range of laptops with different design and equipment can be confusing. But if you focus on a few important features, you will significantly reduce future problems.

Small, large, convertible, design, with great performance or durability. The number of decisions that the future owner of the new notebook must do is a lot. At first glance, he might lose sight of it, but if he follow some good practices, he cannot buy wrong.

Those who are price-oriented and looking for cheaper models in particular should be aware that most such devices fall into the category of consumer goods. Check out how the cheaper devices went through some comprehensive test and get some guideline.

If you want a laptop for more than two years, you will have to pay extra. For a higher price, you will get high-quality metal chassis, usually a good keyboard and a much better workmanship.

If you expect your notebook to hold on longer, use the extended warranty for which you pay, but on the other hand you will not be surprised by any problems.

First decision

When choosing a notebook, you need to know what the purpose of the notebook is. And if it is within the price budget you have. Should it be the only computer you will use, or will it be just such a secondary notebook, web browser, and media file player?

Depending on this, you will choose the laptop category. For a home-based laptop, it does not have to look much at weight, stamina, and it's better to have a bigger display.

In addition to a portable travel notebook, the design also plays a role alongside portability. It's up to the diagonal screen size, where the notebook is 15 "with the maximum limit, so choose a diagonal smaller for travel, with the 13 to 15" models being the most popular and the biggest product choice is among them.

Design and weight are also a guideline. New hybrid devices that make you tablet either by "tearing" off or reversing the screen will save space.


If you know that you have requirement for more system performance, look for notebooks with a memory size of at least 8 GB and ideally separate graphics card from the processor. However, you need to expect more power consumption and noise when you work harder.

The performance will also increase the SSD disk, which is also resistant to the fall of the notebook. Disk capacity should be at least 256 GB so you do not have to temporarily drag the larger files from the external storage or cloud.

As far as the display is concerned, the most popular contrast displays are glossy. They have one major drawback - they reflect the surrounding light sources, so you have to tilt the lid for a while so you can minimize the reflection. However, many glossy displays can also be seen outdoors. Thanks to them, even the cheapest laptops offer a nice picture for watching movies and viewing photos.

If you rely on a higher resolution, expect it to be more power draining, but also with a larger display area for work. However, you may notice that the letters will be very small, and you may be forced to zoom in on longer work. You may have a similar problem with diagonal diagonal displays of about 10 inches.

Narrowing selection

You probably have the basic idea of a laptop. Now you can choose some bigger internet shops with laptops. Set the price, the size of the monitor and, if applicable, the method of use. This gives you a very similar laptop and you can concentrate on the details. Do not forget to choose the design you like. See if your connectivity menu suits you, and if you work at night, look for the backlit keyboard.

For selected models, look for reviews and focus on performance in relation to price, but also to such "little things" as warming up and noise. Reviews will help you choose the final candidates.

Try it

One thing is choosing the internet, another is a specific experience. Technical data and opinions and tests are only a guide. Photos need not faithfully describe reality, and each user has different demands. As a result, you may not like the size, plastic surface, or display capability. You can find out all of this if you try everything in the shop before you buy and compare the features with other notebooks.

Focus on the display to see if it really offers the quality you expected and try out how other models are showing you to make a comparison. Answer the questions if you do not mind the glossy surface, whether the image is gentle or legible and does not hurt your eyes.

Briefly type something on the keyboard. Keyboard should not bend itself unnecessarily, for longer writing is a harder response better. Also try working with a touchpad or touch pen.

Check the design by lifting the notebook in one corner. Bending of the entire chassis, plastics cutting or different waistlines reveals savings in materials and designs. Look at the rigidity of the display joints, it should go open easily, definitely not wobble. Be reconciled to behaving gently at the laptop or look for another model.

Just comparing more models on the spot can show you possible reserves of your pre-selected model.


A great notebook not only on the road. The Aspire S13 has almost no flaws

Matte display, backlit keyboard, lasting over 8 hours of real operation, weight 1300 grams. Acer Aspire S13 on paper looks like an ideal notebook. Although we've come up with some negatives, it's one of the most successful machines on the market. And at a reasonable price.

Made for everyday wear

S13 looks great on paper. The matte 13 "full-HD IPS display, backlit keyboard, double-sided USB-C port, 14.6 mm thick and 1.3 kg make it an ideal everyday companion. i5 and 256GB SSD storage as well as Intel Core i7 and 512GB SSD storage, with 8GB of memory available.

Laptop design is very nice, crinkled surface (same as the white version, less noticeable) but it helps to cling dirt.

At first glance everything looks great. The board around the keyboard is aluminium, the matt finish of the entire notebook is resistant to fingerprints, the palmrests are pleasantly cool even with longer work, and the silver edges (aluminium cut) give a pleasantly luxurious look. The display cover is interestingly "knotted", but especially in the white version it get easily dirty.

The lid with the display is pleasantly strong despite the tiny thickness, and the stronger push cannot be seen on the display. The stiffness of the flipped display is not ideal, but nobody can wear it at the corner of the display, and after snapping it, it rests on the chassis and has no way to bend. I should only have some arguments about the strangely unmatched front and back of the display cover, the fingernail can be inserted between them and I would not think much work to simply disassemble the display.

On the side of the notebook, there are two USB 3.0 ports, one USB 3.1 (with two-sided C connector) and an unmachined HDMI port. And also a combined headphone / microphone port and SDXC card reader.


The combination of a thin body and relatively powerful processors has one drawback - the heat produced must be taken away somewhere. While the passive-cooled Alpha 12 convertible tablet was able to radiate the heat through the entire surface of the metal screen, here (from the keyboard part where the radiator is not radiating) the heat is carried away by the classic fan. And because it's tiny, it's spinning fast. And because it rotates quickly, its working tone is not pleasant. It's hard to know about normal work (internet, office), but when more power is needed, it's not loud but unpleasant.

About display

The display has wide viewing angles, a nice sharp drawing and, above all, it is matte. It is pleasant looking at it even under the dim light conditions, which also helps with high brightness.

But a good software feature (which you can install with any third-party application on any laptop) is the Bluelight Shield, which reduces the blue colour of the display - resulting in less eye fatigue for longer work. The picture is yellowish (the black version of the laptop was better, than the white - here the white border around the screen keeps you focus on the yellowish white tone), but the eyes are subjectively less tired and irritated, especially at night work the night. Of course, do not forget to turn it off, for example, when editing photos.

Built-in camera quality does not deviate from the average, you can see at the image that a powerful electronic noise suppression is used, which somewhat eliminates the artwork. The microphone is moderately sensitive, the voice reads clearly in a busier environment, but with a little strange tone of voice.

The speakers are quite good, the higher centres and the heights are played well, sharply and in detail, unfortunately there are almost no of lower mid and bass, so listening to music without separate speakers or headphones should be avoided.

Performance tests

Both notebooks are equipped with the latest generation Skylake processors, the lower configuration is the i5-6200U, the higher is about the i7-6500U. In the lower configuration, you'll find a 256GB SSD from Kingston, a higher 512GB SSD from Samsung. Both notebooks have 8 GB of memory and 45.3 Wh battery.

The test results show that the power difference between i5 and i7 is not essential in everyday use - if you cannot save your computer often, you can save it. But the limit may be only 256GB of lower version storage space.


The Aspire S13 has succeeded Acer, many compromises resulting from the thin structure he managed to remove, the damage only to areas of noisier cooling, not so ideal touchpad and in case of white version - quite big power adapter.


Experience with Dualboot Windows 8 + Linux Mint under UEFI and Secure Boot

Old computers slowly goes into silicon heaven and are gradually replaced by powerful machines that are equipped with UEFI instead of BIOS and a feature called Secure Boot. Similarly, the number of users who want to install Linux alongside Windows will grow. Detailed dualboot instructions under the UEFI and GPT tables are common, but some important details may vary.

Now I will allow a few disclaimers. I do not attempt of any detailed instructions, I assume that whoever clicks on this article knows the terminology, can make a bootable USB or DVD and can install Linux in Legacy Bios. So it's just breaking down the differences from "classic dualboot" to save time and a little nerves when you decide for such a setup.

I would like to summarize the following steps:

  1. Get familiar with the BIOS / UEFI control on your laptop/computer
  2. Windows partition backup
  3. Preparing LiveUSB
  4. Test the LiveUSB functionality
  5. Backup of data on a test laptop
  6. Change Windows 8 settings
  7. Modify Windows 8 partition
  8. Installing Linux Mint
  9. Post-installation adjustments

1. Get familiar with the BIOS/UEFI control on a laptop/PC

It is the basis for us to manage the installation. If we do not know, we need to find out at least the following:

  • by which keyboard key is activated BIOS / UEFI while booting the notebook
  • how to switch Legacy BIOS and UEFI modes
  • how in UEFI mode, we disable/enable Secure Boot
  • by which key we activate the UEFI Boot Menu while booting the notebook

What BIOS / UEFI and Secure Boot we do not need to be thoroughly explored for installation purposes, although of course the more we know, the better for us, because we will understand more about what we do in the context. If we have task number 1 completed, we can go further.

2. Backup the Windows partition

Of course, as before each disk manipulation, it is recommended to make a backup of the Windows partition, that is, a recovery DVD in case something fails. Murphy's law says that if we do it, everything will go smoothly. If not, it can be a turning point. Disk defragmenter is also recommended, even if it is possible for SSD. Because I do not have Windows 8, I legally downloaded the Windows 8 trial version for 90 days and prepared a boot / install DVD and installed Windows 8 on my laptop. As a good habit of Windows - it has occupied the entire disk. So I did not make a backup or defrag, it was not necessary.

3. Preparing LiveUSB

In this step, we prepare LiveUSB (or LiveDVD). I assume that the ISO file is reliably downloaded. In my case it was Linux Mint Cinnamon, 64 bit. Obviously, the choice is for every user, it is important that the distribution we have decided for is supported by UEFI and was, of course, 64 bit. From this it is clear that everything correctly built on UBUNTU LTS will go. Under Windows, it's often recommended to run LiveUSB UNetbootin, but a colleague wrote in one forum that it might not work properly on all distributions and therefore recommends plan B.

I cannot judge, it worked. Therefore, as Plan B can be used with Win32 Disk Imager or anything that suits you, there are many alternatives.

Since I have already installed Linux Mint, which I plan to sacrifice on the altar of knowledge, so of course I used the tools that are part of the distribution, ie USB Disk Formatting and then the USB Disk Builder.

These are simple and reliable utilities available to the Mint user. Of course, everyone uses what suits him and what he is used to.

4. Examining LiveUSB / DVD functionality

Prior to the installation, I was able to listen to guide of more experienced and created LiveUSB resp. Live DVD to be properly check in Live session. So we turn off the notebook (or PC, the next notebook), start the BIOS / UEFI at startup and change the boot order so that our PC boots from our Live Media. And when we're there, make sure we have UEFI and Secure Boot turned on. Window design may vary according to BIOS.

In the UEFI Boot Order menu we put the USB Diskette on Key / USB Hard Disk in the first place. If we're done, we'll save the settings and restart, usually with the F10 key. So plug in LiveUSB and reboot. If we did the right thing, our live session distribution should welcome us.

So we start up and take the time to check the correct behaviour of our laptop to access the Internet. Linux Mint has the advantage that even Live session can be connected over Wi-Fi, which may not be necessary for some distributions. Connecting to the Internet is not a condition. I suppose everything works as we do, we go further. If not, you need to go back one step back and consider where the comrades have made a mistake. After a successful test, turn off the notebook / PC, pull out LiveUSB / DVD and start Windows.

5. Backup data on a laptop / PC.

Since we are going to handle the disk, it is recommended that you make a backup of your Windows data. There is a lot of ways, I assume that there is no need to devote special attention to this topic, but it needs to be highlighted.

6. Change the Windows settings.

Who's glad we'll be installing, he'll have to wait a moment. There are a few changes waiting for us. If we were satisfied by how fast our Windows starts, it's because they are not actually shutting down. When you press the Power Off / Off button, they are being moved to the disk. This should be changed so that when you click the Shut Down button, Windows will turn off. Open the Control Panel, click System and Security, and then click Power Options.

The following window will appear in which we can see that even if the notebook is turned off, Windows just goes to sleep.

In the "When I press the power button" dialog, therefore, switch Sleep to Shutdown for On battery and Plugged in mode. You also need to turn off Turn on fast startup - the box must be blank. These are the major changes without which the dualboot will not work, so let's take that.

7. Modify the Windows partition

The English text uses the "shrink partition", which means literally shrinking a partition. Who has more physical disks or has a pre-prepared partition, of course, can skip this part. We draw from a situation where Windows is cracked on the entire disk. To get a report, open the Disk Manager utility and see your disks.

We see that Disk0 is completely occupied. At the same time, however, we see a 100MB partition labelled EFI System Partition. The place to install Linux is by clicking the Win8 (C:) partition and choosing Shrink volume. The part we are going to reduce will be marked by diagonal lines.

Well, and in the subsequent dialogue, we determine how many partitioning capacities remain for Windows and how much we allocate to Linux.

After successful shrinking, part of the disc will be cut out like Unallocated, which we like because we wanted it.

This is what we do with the Windows edits, save the changes, and restart to make sure that our changes to the system settings did not hurt anyway. If the restart runs smoothly, we shut down Windows (not hibernate but - shut down). It is time to install Linux. If anyone is complaining that we have not yet shut down Secure Boot in UEFI, we have made it so on purpose. Just keep it on.

8. Install Linux Mint

Before installing, remember that we are installing under UEFI and Secure Boot. Basically, the installation from MBR does not differ much except for one important change. If we were stuck in classical installations under MBR and Legacy BIOS, the bootloader is installed in the partition without a number, sda, here is the difference that we will install the boot loader into the partition that is referred to as EFI System Partition and Linux will see it with the number. So we boot up our previously tested system (for me Linux Mint Cinnamon). And we'll see Secure Boot does not mind. Since it works on the Ubuntu LTS chassis, we can answer the question of how the distribution will be ranked with Secure Boot. So, if we do not stick to a dualboot, Secure Boot does not need to bother us. And I do not want anyone to bother with the detailed installation instructions, it's enough. We will highlight only important things.

The difference in defining parts under the UEFI is that you are not limited by the four primary parties. Note how the EFI party is tagged.

As we can see, it is dev / sda2 and there will be a boot loader installed after partitioning the disk. We do not interfere with existing Windows partitions.

So we divide the disk respectively. Its part, which we made free by shrinking the partition, at discretion and finally do not forget the bootloader.

If we have efi, for example, under sda3, of course we install it there. Sure no one is angry that I will not take all the steps in detail, repeating the instructions is enough. After successful installation, we will restart.

9. Post-installation adjustments

During the restart, we run the UEFI Boot Menu, it's a F12 key usually and a similar menu will appear.

And now a short node about Secure Boot. If we want / need / need to have Secure Boot enabled, you can choose to start Windows or Linux from this menu. So if I choose Windows Boot Manager, I start Windows and I can work normally. If I want to work with Linux, of course I choose Ubuntu or your installed distribution.

Now we choose ubuntu and get GRUB menu Linux Mint 17.

So we have a choice. If we select Mint, and we have installed correctly, of course it will start correctly. If you choose Windows Boot Manager, instead of Windows start, something similar will appear:

/ EndEntire

File path: / ACPI (a0Q41d0,0) / PCI (2,1f) / Sata (0,0,0) / HD (2,96800,32000,873aa15a09db744b, 2,2) / File (\ EFI \ Microsoft \ Boot ) / File (Bootmgfw.efi) / EndEntire

Error: cannot load image

And this error message is a consequence of the Secure Boot being turned on. So if we want to use the GRUB Menu and not take the UEFI Boot Menu, we will have to disable Secure Boot. How? It can problem for some Bios / UEFIs. Simply, the Secure Boot option is inaccessible.

How to do it? In my case, fortunately, activation of Supervisor Password helped to make the choice available. However, in some cases, no trick can help except for BIOS / UEFI upgrade. So, if you encounter such a complication, it's a UEFI for Windows that complicates this dualboot, you need to read how to successfully upgrade the UEFI.

In our case, however, we disable Secure Boot, save, restart, and we can take a dualboot under UEFI.


Computer communication and networks

Computer networks

  • communication interfaces enabling computers
  • information transfer - transfer of information and files between computers
  • sharing technical resources - computers, printers, disks, scanners ...
  • use of network services - communication, file, print, security ...

Distribution of networks

Depending on the size

  • LAN (local) - room, building, school ...
  • MAN (urban) - regional non-public network - cable TV + PC network
  • WAN (public) - national and global network - the Internet

By order

  • P2P (each with each other) - Exchange Information Networks - BitTorrent, DC
  • K-S (client server) - server provides service sharing - WWW, FTP, Mail ...

According to the link

  • wire - coaxial cable 10 Mbps (bus), twisted pair TP (Twisted Pair) 1 Gbps
  • optical cable - spec. plastic fibers, min. attenuation, up to 40 Gbps
  • wireless - optical links (IR, laser), radio connections (Bluetooh, WiFi, Mobile, Satellite)

Depending on the layout - topology

  • bus - cheap, obsolete, coaxial cable, T-branch, 10 Mbps
  • star - the most common LAN connection, TP cable, switch usage, 100 Mbps, 1Gbps
  • tree - corporate - school LAN, branched star, use of switches and routers


computers that provide services to users working on client PCs,  specially equipped computers with special software

Server hardware

powerful multi-core processor, high RAM capacity, backed-up fast disk array

Server software

special network OS - MS Windows Server, Novell Netware, Solaris, Linux

special server applications - MS SQL Server, MySQL, Apache, DNS server

Server services

  • File Server - Share Network Drives
  • Database server - Structured data store
  • Print Server - Share Network Printers
  • Web server - running the WWW service
  • FTP and Mail Server - FTP and Mail traffic on the Internet

Network Components


signal amplifier

extends the segment length to the desired value

Hub (Hub)

network branching and interconnection of stations

Switch (Switch)

an intelligent connection element working with MAC address stations

Bridge (Bridge)

network segments


linking local networks and routing data between networks using IP addresses


local network connection to the public network


Black Friday is here! Purchase easily, quickly and without nerves

Black Friday dominated the Internet and stores today, and the main boom in 2017 will come on November 24. Where to find the best discounts? Which sites provide the best overview? And why is he celebrating at all?

This week the Black Friday carousel kicked off, a discount event for any good. Many Black Friday shops have made the Black Week and have been offering discounts since Monday. Other companies will start offering discounts on goods until Friday, and will be extended until Sunday. So where do you find your products at the promotional prices?

Where to find a review of action prices?

There are plenty of discount and action portal portals. Black Friday is for such sites as made. So, if you do not want to crazy about the shops, sit down and browse through the sites that are subject to discounts on Black Friday.

If you have your favorite store, do not hesitate to check out his web sites if he does not join in the discount madness (if you have not already heard from it).

We definitely recommend purchasing online, because it can be wilderness in stone shops. Furthermore, do not cancel the purchase, the discount actions are also limited by the number of pieces of goods and waiting for a larger discount does not have to pay you.

Beware of "discounts"!

If you have found an incredible discount on the internet, you should definitely go through the history of the company on the Internet. Ideally, it should have a large number of ratings and good internet communication. If you think the site is suspicious, you'd better forgive the purchase. Also pay attention to "discounts". You'd better check on a price comparator if the discount is not just supposed. For example, the Heureka.cz price comparator calculated that the average discount in this year's e-shop sales in January was about 19 percent. Some stores have claimed discounts twice as big.

And whether you are borrowing or wanting to enjoy pre-Christmas free time, remember that the best investment is time spent with family and friends. Maybe when shopping...

What is Black Friday at all?

Black Friday is linked to the Thanksgiving Day in the US. Thanksgiving is the day the Americans dine with a family of turkeys and other dishes. They give thanks to God, for the first time, the first Fathers of pilgrims celebrated him with friendly natives. Black Friday then follows Thanksgiving. For the first time, Black Friday's discount events were organized in 1952 in the US. Otherwise, the name Black Friday originated in Philadelphia, where this was a description of the great traffic jam that is typical of the day under Thanksgiving. Nowadays, this is one of the biggest marketing events in the world, with millions of people luring the retail chain. This holiday is often criticized as consumer support. From the United States, this holiday spread to Canada, then to Western Europe, Japan, South Korea, and today it is mostly a discount event throughout the developed world.

Did not you get to buy slippers, headphones or a mixer? Do not be afraid, in a month starts a pre-Christmas sale, to be followed by a Christmas and New Year sale. In short, discounts are awaiting us wherever you look ...


Be careful when redirecting pages

Every website admin encouter this problem almost every day. I would like to explain to you the possible solutions in this article. Site redirection problem occurs because of the transition from HTTP to HTTPS, when redesigning a site or actually from any other cause.

You may say that there is no problem, but it is good to clarify all the steps and impacts it can bring. I recommend running the double count and one-time rule, because even the smallest error can have a negative effect on organic search engine traffic and the heavily built position in search results.

The topic of redirection is very extensive, so here are some basic mistakes that I usually encounter in my practice. What is actually redirecting and what are the basic ways of redirecting?

What is page redirection?

Simply put, when redirecting a page, we give a sort of "command" for the browser to open page B when opening page A.


We have a URL www.example.com/old-page that we need to cancel for some reason, or do not work. This page will then open with "404 - not found". We should correctly redirect such a page to another content-relevant page to open its replacement instead of a broken page. When the user opens the old page A: www.example.com/old-page, the new page B appears on the browser: www.example.com/new-page.

What types of redirects do we know?

We usually know 4 types of redirects, using status codes 301, 302, 307 and the meta tag refresh. Which type should I use when I need to redirect my page?

Redirecting with 301

Redirect 301 is the most common way of redirecting and is also called "permanent forwarding". Status code 301 tells the browser that the page you are trying to open has been permanently redirected to another page (its content has disappeared and its replacement is on a new page).

The great advantage of this redirection is that it "transmits" about 90% (and more) to the so-called link juice (which is the quality of the page ranked by the search engine based on backlinks pointing to the page). This redirection is most often used in practice, and SEO is most recommended because it transfers a significant amount of page authority, called "PageRank."

Redirecting with 302

In the HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) 1.0, this redirection is considered "temporary" - that is, the content of the original page is temporarily unavailable and therefore the page is redirected to another page (but only for a limited time). In HTTP version 1.1, this redirect means "Found," that is, the page was found, but it was moved to another location for an unspecified reason. Redirect 302 probably does not transmit the same PageRank as 301 redirects and is therefore not recommended to use it in practice.

Redirecting with 307

This redirection is used in HTTP 1.1 (temporary redirection) and is equivalent to 302 redirection in http version 1.0. As with the 302 redirects, neither 307 redirects do not transmit PageRank pages on the newly (redirected) page.

Redirecting with meta tag "refresh"

The "refresh" meta tag is used when we need to redirect users from page A to page B, respectively. for some reason, we need to update (retrieve) the content of the same URL. In the case of redirecting with the "refresh" meta tag, a short code is usually inserted into the page header that specifies the command to open a specific URL (usually over a certain period of time).


This technique, however, is not recommended from the point of view of SEO, because redirection is usually slower and only a very small amount of link juice is transmitted using the "refresh" meta tag.

How to properly redirect pages so that our search engine positions are not dropped?

Sometimes you've made changes on your site, you need to redirect pages, and you've been horrified to find that your hard-earned positions have dropped in search results, respectively. have completely failed? No fear! If the redirection is correct, this status should be normalized and returned after a few days (weeks).

You have to be patient and give the search engine time to make changes to record, reindex, and "evaluate". So what do you need to count if we have to go to redirect the page?

1. Each redirection of URL A to URL B loses a small amount of "force" of the redirected URL

We unfortunately have to count this fact. Therefore, it is advisable, if possible, to avoid redirecting pages (or to eliminate them and to use them only when necessary).

According to the well-known online marketing community moz.com, using redirects using status code 301, loses approximately 15% of page authority (PageRank). Also, beware of multiple redirects (for example, redirecting URL A to URL B, then redirecting to URL C).

However, the loss of authority for a Google search engine does not apply when migrating from HTTP to HTTPS (according to John Mueller from Google, no loss of link juice or PageRank when switching from HTTP to HTTPS using 301 and 302 redirects is not a threat). However, when migrating from HTTP to HTTPS, the content of the site is usually "shifting" permanently, so sites should be redirected using status code 301.

Among other things, I recommend that each site should go to HTTPS, which is secure, and you will definitely make a plus on search engines. Since January 2017, Google Chrome has begun to alert users that the HTTP site connection is not secure.


If your monthly URL is for example 1000 visitors, it's quite possible that when you redirect this page, the page traffic will drop slightly and no longer 1,000 users will be redirected. How much site traffic drops depends on the drop in the position of the keywords that bring traffic to that page. It should also be borne in mind that if your site drops from position 1 to position 4 from a certain keyword, the difference in traffic will be much greater than if your site from a particular keyword dropped from position 5 to position 8. Of course, you should also take into account the monthly search for the keywords that are brought to you by visitors. If your site is ranked first in search results for a keyword with a search term of 1000, for example, a 4th position would decrease your traffic much more than would be the case with a 10-month search keyword.

2. Site redirection may have an impact on the temporary decline of search engine positions

Any changes to your site that happen in real-time will be reflected later in the search engines. The search engine has a kind of "database" of pages (index) where all the indexed URLs of the site are found in the form they were when the site's last visited and enrolled in the index (indexed).

This means that when a change takes place on a website (such as a page redirection), the search engine must first find out that this change occurred, overwrite it in its index, and based on a large number of factors, evaluate it (and thus "Edit" the positions on which certain keywords will appear). However, this condition should be short-lived, and should revert to the norm when properly redirected.

The most common mistakes when redirecting pages

Let's take a look at the most basic redirection errors that have a negative impact on you, so it's better to avoid them. What is the error?

1. Redirect the page to an inappropriate location

Redirecting the URL to a different page content may cause a significant decrease in search results. One of the most important factors in terms of SEO is the history of the site and its content, and it is therefore necessary to always redirect to a page that is the same content, respectively. very similar.


Imagine having a website where you sell electronics and writing a comprehensive article about selling the Playstation 4 game console at unbeatable prices, with daily market monitoring and the cheapest. Imagine that this is a quality content that has been discussed in various forums, and search engines have "liked" it and based on content, history, links, and a number of other factors, your keyword page "the cheapest Playstation 4" in the first search rank. Next, imagine that you are redesigning the site, for example, and you decide to reduce the number of pages in the site, and you will cancel the prototype and direct it directly to the Playstation 4 product pages where the photos + product specifications are. You will say that the content is almost identical, but the search engine sees it differently. He will visit the original page where he finds that he has been redirected to a new page where he does not find any content that sells you Playstation 4 is the cheapest on the market for an unbeatable price etc. The search engine then evaluates the new content and most likely drops your page from the first because content has ceased to be relevant to the keyword "Cheapest Playstation 4".

2. Page does not convert - 404 (Not found)

I encounter this problem most often. For some reason, the URL will be canceled and will not be redirected, whether consciously or unconsciously. Avoid this error, and always make sure that the deleted page leads to "replacement content".

In the case of a conscious non-redirect, the site administrator can say, for example, "we published this article two years ago, it's not up to date, we do not need it." The page simply cancels the page and does not redirect it anywhere. But you need to realize that the article can be a popular search engine and brings valuable visitors to the site. A search engine that has that page in its index suddenly finds that the page has been canceled, the webmaster has not replaced it, and has not redirected anywhere. It then starts displaying it as 404 (Not found).

I therefore recommend that you always think in advance of what to do with an out-of-date page before you cancel it and definitely delete it. The best solution is to replace it with another, current page. What, for example, with a product that stops selling, that is, with the page on which the product is located?


Imagine that you are selling Playstaytion 4 and you have a created product page, but new game consoles suddenly come to market and you will say that Playstation 4 is no longer making much of your profit, or you will not sell it anymore. Theoretically it makes sense, right? What do I need to display a product page that I no longer sell? But there is another solution. The Playstation 4 product page can have a very good natural footprint, ie it would be a pity on her "visitors" to come. I would not personally disturb the site at all, I would only "download" it from the site so that no one could get it through an internal link (eg from the menu). However, the page will still be in the search engine index and can therefore be searched for by keywords. Since I do not want to sell Playstation 4, I'll add a readable text to the page that tells the prospective customer that I'm not selling the product anymore while directing it to another current product. I would like to use the "Forget Playstation 4" trailer, the new Slide Game Console is on the market! Find out more! ".

Final summary

When it comes to redirecting, always think about what to do with the "old" page. If you do not want to lose visitors (not only from organic search), find the old page to be replaced with the same or similar content.

When migrating to HTTPS, I recommend using a redirect using status code 301. When redirecting pages for another reason, I also recommend using the 301 code (unless it is a situation that requires a different redirect). In most cases, the URL is permanently aborted and should be permanently redirected in the "301 permanent redirect" way. Be assured that redistribution with status code 301 will take you to most PageRank pages, which is not guaranteed for other redirects.

Meltdown / Spectre after patch Tests. The slowdown was measured by Intel itself

The Meltdown / Specter case, which shifted confidence in the security of modern processors at the beginning of the year 2018. Intel has published its own benchmarks for its Core CPUs, so we can figure out how demanding is the patch for the performance of the system according to the semiconductor giant scenarios.

For those who do not know what to say, a brief summary. Just after the New Year 2018, it became clear that most modern processors have a large security vulnerability that allows an attacker to read other process data or even a system's protected memory. Errors were called Meltdown and Specter. The biggest hammer went to Intel, which showed that vulnerability originated in the CPU itself, and the software bug fix would probably mean a reduction in performance.

The impact of the patch has already been tested by some editors of the hardware sites (Guru3D, tomshardware, techspot). The measurement shows that the drop of performance will not be so remarkable. Only by SSD benchmarks after applying both the software patch and the updated BIOS was the impact noticeable. In real-life tests (games), however, this did not show much and the performance was limited by only a percentage. This indirectly confirmed Intel's original words, which argued that the performance impact is highly dependent on the system's work scenarios, and that the servers and data centers will be affected most, so home users can be quiet.

Now Intel has released its Skylake to Coffee Lake chips tests on Windows 10 or 7 platforms, including mobile processors. Benchmarks do not confirm catastrophic predictions about a flat 30% reduction in performance, but there is some influence here. Most of these are units per cent, or the reduction will not be at all (and we rarely see an increase, only for completeness). In the worst case, however, it is a non-negligible 21%. This applies to the SYSMark 2014 SE Respiratory on the Skylake CPU with Windows 10 and SSD.

Complete table available on TZ Intel: Link

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